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Creating a Large Language Model from Scratch with Python: A Comprehensive Tutorial

In the realm of machine learning and artificial intelligence, the development of large language models (LLMs) has been a game changer. These models, capable of understanding and generating human-like text, have revolutionized various fields, from chatbots to content creation. In this tutorial, we delve into the intricacies of building your own LLM from scratch using Python, inspired by the teachings of Elia Arleds and Andre Karpathy.

Getting Started: The Basics

The journey begins with the basics. You don’t need a deep understanding of calculus or linear algebra to start. A fundamental grasp of Python and a willingness to learn are sufficient. The course emphasizes a step-by-step approach, gradually introducing complex concepts to ensure a solid foundational understanding.

Setting Up the Environment

The tutorial emphasizes the use of local computation, avoiding the need for expensive datasets or cloud computing. You’ll learn to manage a dataset of around 45 gigabytes, ensuring you have the necessary resources for training your model. The tutorial covers the installation of essential tools like Anaconda and the creation of a virtual environment, which is crucial for maintaining an organized and efficient workspace.

Data Handling and Preparation

Data is the backbone of any machine learning model. You’ll learn to handle and preprocess data effectively, starting with downloading and cleaning a dataset. The course uses ‘The Wizard of Oz’ text from Project Gutenberg as an example, teaching you how to manipulate and prepare this data for your model.

Understanding Tokenization

Tokenization is a critical step in preparing your data. It involves converting text into a format that can be easily processed by the model. You’ll explore different levels of tokenization, including character-level and word-level, and learn how to implement these using Python. The tutorial provides hands-on experience in creating encoders and decoders, essential components of the tokenization process.

Diving into PyTorch

PyTorch, a leading machine learning framework, is at the heart of this course. You’ll gain practical experience in using PyTorch for building and training your language model. The tutorial covers the basics of tensors, the fundamental data structure in PyTorch, and guides you through the process of converting your tokenized data into tensors.

Building the Language Model

The core of the course is building the language model itself. You’ll start with a bi-gram model, a simple yet effective type of language model. The tutorial walks you through the process of creating this model, teaching you the underlying principles of language modeling, such as predicting the probability of a word based on its preceding word.

Training and Validation

An essential part of machine learning is training and validating your model. You’ll learn how to split your dataset into training and validation sets and understand the importance of this process. The course teaches you how to train your model effectively, ensuring it learns to generate text that is similar to, but not an exact copy of, the training data.

Practical Tips and Tricks

Throughout the course, you’ll receive practical advice and tips to enhance your learning experience. From managing your workspace to understanding the nuances of machine learning models, the tutorial provides a comprehensive guide to building a large language model.


Building a large language model from scratch is a challenging yet rewarding endeavor. This tutorial, with its step-by-step approach and practical examples, provides a solid foundation for anyone interested in entering the field of machine learning and natural language processing. Whether you’re a beginner or have some experience, this course offers valuable insights and skills that you can apply in your projects.

Remember, the key to success in this field is persistence and a willingness to learn. With these qualities, you can make significant strides in understanding and creating large language models.

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